Essential Reading for Excavator Drivers: Tips for Using Excavators

February 28,2024

How to use excavators correctly is crucial.

For an excellent excavator operator, there are strict precautions before and after excavator construction, and there are also things to pay attention to and avoid during operation.

Excavator operators should remember these precautions to better improve work efficiency and avoid problems and equipment failures during construction. Especially for beginners, good operating methods are valuable experience summaries.


1. Operational techniques

Before starting the device, it is necessary to confirm the surrounding working environment.

When performing rotary operations, it is important to have a clear understanding of the surrounding obstacles and terrain, and to operate safely;

When doing homework, it is important to confirm the front and rear directions of the tracks to avoid tipping or impact.

Try not to face the final drive face towards the excavation direction, as it may damage the walking motor and hoses;

When doing homework, ensure that the tracks are in complete contact with the ground and maintain the stability of the machine body.

2. Effective mining methods

The maximum excavation force occurs when the bucket cylinder is perpendicular to the connecting rod and the stick cylinder is perpendicular to the stick;When the bucket teeth maintain a 30 degree angle with the ground, the excavation force is optimal and the soil cutting resistance is minimized;

When excavating with a stick, it should be ensured that the angle range of the stick is between 45 degrees in the front and 30 degrees in the back.

Simultaneously using the boom and bucket to improve excavation efficiency.


3. Loading job

The excavator body should be in a horizontal and stable position, otherwise it will be difficult to accurately control the rotation and unloading, thereby extending the operation time;

The excavator body should be kept at an appropriate distance from the truck to prevent the rear of the body from colliding with the truck during a 180 degree rotation;

Try to perform left turn loading and unloading as much as possible, which ensures a wide view and improves work efficiency. At the same time, it is important to control the rotation angle to reduce turning time;

The truck position should be lower than the excavator position to shorten the boom lifting time and ensure good visibility;

Sand and gravel should be loaded first, and then large stones should be placed to reduce impact on the carriage.

4. Excavation of rocks

Using a bucket to excavate rocks can cause significant damage to the equipment and should be avoided as much as possible;

When excavation is necessary, the position of the machine body should be adjusted according to the direction of the rock cracks, so that the bucket can be smoothly inserted for excavation;

Insert the bucket teeth into the rock cracks and excavate with the digging force of the bucket rod and bucket;

Rock that has not been broken should be broken first before using a bucket for excavation.


5. Lifting operations

When using a hydraulic excavator for lifting operations, the surrounding conditions of the lifting site should be confirmed, high-strength lifting hooks and steel wire ropes should be used, and specialized lifting devices should be used as much as possible during lifting;

The homework method should choose micro operation mode, and the actions should be slow and balanced;

The length of the suspension rope is appropriate, and if the suspension rope is too long, it will cause the suspended object to swing more and be difficult to accurately control; Correctly adjust the position of the bucket to prevent the steel wire rope from slipping;

Construction personnel should try not to approach the lifted object as much as possible to prevent danger caused by improper operation.

6. Slope leveling operation

When carrying out surface finishing, the machine should be parked on a horizontal surface to maintain the stability of the body, grasp the coordination of the movements of the boom and the bucket, and control the speed of both is crucial for surface finishing.


7. Smooth operation method

When the equipment is in operation, the stability of the machine can not only improve work efficiency and extend the lifespan of the machine, but also ensure operational safety;

The stability of the drive sprocket on the rear side is better than that on the front side, and it can prevent the final drive from being hit by external forces;

The wheelbase of the track on the ground is always greater than the wheelbase, so when working forward, stability is good, and lateral operation should be avoided as much as possible;

Keep the excavation point close to the machine to improve stability;

If the excavation point is far away from the machine, it will cause instability in the operation due to the forward shift of the center of gravity;

Lateral excavation is less stable than forward excavation. If the excavation point is far from the center of the machine, it will cause instability of the equipment. Therefore, the excavation point should be kept at an appropriate distance from the center of the machine to ensure balanced and efficient operation.

8. Working in soft areas or water

When working in soft soil areas, it is important to understand the degree of soil compaction and pay attention to limiting the excavation range of the bucket to prevent accidents such as landslides and collapses, as well as deeper vehicle subsidence.

When working in water, attention should be paid to the allowable water depth range of the vehicle body (the water surface should be below the center of the support roller);

If the horizontal plane is high, the internal lubrication of the rotary bearing will be poor due to the entry of water, the engine fan blades will be damaged due to water impact, and electrical circuit components will experience short circuits or open circuits due to water intrusion.


9. Noteworthy operation

The hydraulic cylinder is equipped with a buffer device inside, which can gradually release back pressure near the end of the stroke;

If the piston is subjected to an impact load after reaching the end of the stroke, it will directly touch the cylinder head or bottom, which is prone to accidents. Therefore, it is advisable to leave as much clearance as possible when reaching the end of the stroke.

The use of rotary motion for soil pushing operation will cause abnormal force on the bucket and working device, resulting in distortion or weld cracking, and even pin shaft fracture. This operation should be avoided as much as possible.

Using the weight of the aircraft body for excavation can cause abnormal stress on the slewing support, as well as strong vibration and impact on the chassis, resulting in significant damage to the hydraulic cylinder or hydraulic pipeline.

When loading and unloading heavy materials such as rocks, it is advisable to approach the bottom of the truck compartment for unloading, or load soil first and then rocks. High altitude unloading is prohibited to reduce impact damage to the truck.

When the track is deeply stuck in the mud, place a wooden board under the bucket, use the bottom of the bucket to support the track, and then place a wooden board under the track to drive the machine out.


10. Correct walking operation

When the excavator is walking, the working device should be retracted as much as possible and placed close to the center of the body to maintain stability; Place the final drive behind to protect it.

Avoid driving over obstacles such as tree stumps and rocks as much as possible to prevent the tracks from twisting; If it is necessary to drive over obstacles, ensure that the center of the track is on the obstacle.

When passing over earthen mounds, always use a working device to support the chassis to prevent severe shaking or even overturning of the vehicle body.

Avoid idling the engine on steep slopes for a long time, otherwise poor lubrication may occur due to changes in the oil level angle.

Long distance walking of the machine can cause high temperatures, decreased oil viscosity, and poor lubrication inside the supporting wheels and final drive due to prolonged rotation. Therefore, it is necessary to frequently stop the machine to cool down and extend the service life of the lower body.

It is prohibited to use the driving force of walking for excavation operations, otherwise excessive load will cause early wear or damage to the final drive, tracks, and other vehicle components.

When walking uphill, the driving wheels should be in the rear to increase the adhesion of the ground contact track.

When walking downhill, the driving wheel should be in front to tighten the upper track, in order to prevent the vehicle from sliding forward under the influence of gravity and causing danger during parking.

When walking on a slope, the working device should be placed in front to ensure safety. After parking, gently insert the bucket into the ground and put a stopper under the track.

When turning on steep slopes, the speed should be slowed down. When turning left, turn the left track backwards, and when turning right, turn the right track backwards. This can reduce the danger when turning on slopes.


11. Correct crushing operation

Firstly, place the hammer head vertically on the object to be broken.

When starting the crushing operation, lift the front body of the vehicle by about 5 centimeters. When crushing, the crushing head should be pressed on the crushed object. Once the crushed object has been crushed, the crushing operation should be stopped immediately.

When breaking, due to vibration, the hammer head gradually changes direction, so the direction of the bucket cylinder should be adjusted at any time to make the hammer head direction perpendicular to the surface of the broken object.

When the hammer cannot penetrate the broken object, the broken position should be changed;

Do not break continuously in one place for more than a minute, otherwise the hammer head will be damaged and the oil temperature will abnormally rise;

For hard objects, they should gradually break from the edge.

It is strictly prohibited to use hydraulic hammers while rotating, breaking, twisting, horizontally or upwards after inserting the hammer head, and using hydraulic hammers as chisels.

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