As a kind of heavy construction machinery equipment, mechanical excavator plays an important role in the field of construction and mining.
Machinery excavators are mainly composed of car body, power transmission system, control system, working equipment and walking system. The car body provides loading space and equipment carrier, and generally adopts a cast steel structure after surface treatment. The power transmission system includes an engine, a gearbox, a transmission shaft, etc., and its function is to transmit the power generated by the engine to the working equipment and the running system. The engine is generally a diesel engine, and the power varies from 100 horsepower to more than 1,000 horsepower depending on the machine model. The stability and work efficiency of machinery excavators depend largely on the performance of the power transmission system. The control system is used to operate the working equipment and traveling system of the excavator to realize the switching of different working modes. The system consists of control valve pumps, control cylinders, rockers, pedals, etc., mechanical or hydraulic transmission control signals, to achieve lifting, telescopic, rotating and other actions of working equipment. The agility and flexibility of the system determine the maneuverability of the excavator. Working equipment is the main functional part of the excavator, including buckets, booms, breakers, etc., and is used to complete excavation, loading and stockyard handling. Different working equipment can be assembled on the same excavator to realize multiple working modes. The walking system enables the excavator to move on the construction site, including crawler tracks, wheels, drive shafts and other parts. As a typical heavy construction machinery, mechanical excavator's performance index and work efficiency largely depend on the matching degree of the system and the durability of each key part. Reasonable selection of mechanical excavator specifications and guarantees for its maintenance and maintenance can maximize its performance, reduce failure rates, and reduce follow-up operating costs. The wide application of machinery excavators has promoted the technical progress of engineering construction and mining work. However, its high energy consumption and environmental pollution have also brought certain problems. In the future, while improving the performance and intelligence level of machinery excavators, it is also necessary to improve their power devices, reduce their energy consumption and emissions, and achieve environmentally friendly and efficient sustainable development.